Lilac - a genus of shrubs of the Olive family, including, according to various sources, from 22 to 36 species growing in the mountainous regions of Eurasia. Plant common lilac (Latin Syringa vulgaris) is a type species of the genus Lilac. In the wild, lilacs can be found on the Balkan Peninsula, along the lower Danube, in the Southern Carpathians. In culture, the lilac shrub is used as an ornamental plant, as well as to protect and strengthen slopes that are exposed to erosion. In European gardening culture, lilacs have been cultivated since the middle of the 16th century, after the Roman ambassador brought it from Constantinople. The Turks called the plant "lilac", and in the gardens of Flanders, Germany and Austria, it began to be grown under the name "Turkish viburnum" or "lilac".
In those days, lilacs occupied a very modest position in European ornamental gardening due to a short flowering period, small flowers and loose panicles, however, after the Frenchman Victor Lemoine began to select a plant, several dozen varieties of long and luxuriantly blooming lilacs with dense inflorescences of the correct forms. In addition, Lemoine created varieties of various colors with double flowers. After Victor, his son Emil and grandson Henri were engaged in the selection of lilacs. In total, Lemoyans bred 214 varieties of lilacs. In France, Charles Baltet, Auguste Gouchaux and François Morel were also involved in breeding work with lilacs, in Germany - Ludwig Shpet and Wilhelm Pfitzer. At the beginning of the 20th century, in Holland, new varieties of lilacs were bred by Jan van Tol, Klaas Kessen, Hugo Koster and Dirk Evelens Maars, in Poland - by Karpov-Lipski.
At the beginning of the 20th century, interest in lilacs arose in North America, where Gulda Klager, John Dunbar, Theodore Havemeyer and other famous breeders from the USA and Canada were engaged in the development of new varieties of the plant. On the territory of the former USSR, breeding work with lilacs was carried out in Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Russia. Today there are more than 2300 varieties of lilacs, differing in the shape and size of flowers, their color, flowering time, height and habit of the bushes. Two thirds of these varieties were obtained with the participation of the common lilac species.
Read more about growing lilacs below.
Lilac is a multi-stemmed deciduous shrub with a height of 2 to 8 m. Lilac trunks can reach a diameter of 20 cm. They are covered with gray or gray-brown bark, fissured on old trunks and smooth on young ones.
Lilac leaves bloom early, do not fall until the very frost and can reach a length of 12 cm. They are opposite, usually whole, sometimes pinnately-divided. Depending on the type of lilac, the shape of the leaves can be oval, heart-shaped, ovoid or elongated with a pointed tip. The color of the leaves is light or dark green. White, lilac, purple, blue, violet or pink flowers, collected in terminal drooping panicles up to 20 cm long, consist of a short bell-shaped four-toothed calyx, two stamens and a corolla with a long cylindrical tube and a flat four-part limb. When does lilac bloom? Depending on the type of lilac, local climate and weather, flowering occurs from late April to early June. In any case, you will not miss this phenomenon: the blooming lilac will make itself felt with a subtle, delicate and very pleasant aroma. The fruit of the plant is a bivalve capsule in which several winged seeds ripen.
Lilacs live under favorable conditions for up to a hundred years. It does not require complex care, is not afraid of frost and, along with hydrangea and mock orange, or garden jasmine, is one of the most popular ornamental shrubs.
Lilacs, unlike other shrubs and trees, are best planted from the second half of July to early September. Planting lilacs in spring or autumn is impractical, since the plant does not take root well and practically does not grow in the first year. Lilacs are planted in well-lit areas. The plant prefers moderately moist, humus-rich soils with a pH of 5.0-7.0.
When purchasing lilac seedlings, pay attention to the state of their root system: it should be developed and well-branched. Before planting, the roots are shortened to 30 cm, broken, diseased or dried roots are removed. Too long shoots are also shortened, and the damaged ones are removed.
Depending on the type and variety of planted plants, the distance between lilac seedlings should be from 2 to 3 m. How to plant lilacs in the garden? First you need to prepare planting pits with steep walls. The size of the holes in soils with good or medium fertility should be 50x50x50 cm, and when planting in sandy or poor soil, the size is doubled with the expectation that when planting, the pit will be filled with a fertile substrate consisting of humus or compost (15-20 kg ), superphosphate (20-30 g) and wood ash (200-300 g). If the soil in the area is acidic, then the amount of ash is doubled.
At the bottom of the planting pit, a layer of drainage material (expanded clay, crushed stone, broken brick) is laid, on which a hill of fertile soil mixture is poured. The seedling is placed in the center of the pit on a hill, its roots are straightened and the pit is filled to the top with the substrate. The root collar of the seedling should be 3-4 cm above the surface level.After planting, the plant is watered abundantly, and when the water is absorbed, the trunk circle is mulched with a layer of humus or peat 5-7 cm thick.
Caring for lilacs in the garden will not make it difficult even for a lazy gardener. How to grow lilacs? It will grow by itself, you only need to water it in the first half of the summer as the soil dries up, spending 25-30 liters of water for each bush, and 3-4 times per season to loosen the soil in its near-stem circle to a depth of 4-7 cm, simultaneously removing weeds. In August and September, watering lilacs is carried out only in case of prolonged drought. After 5-6 years, with easy care, your seedling will turn into a lush bush.
As for top dressing, in the first 2-3 years, only a small amount of nitrogen is introduced under the lilac: from the second year - 50-60 g of urea or 65-80 g of ammonium nitrate for each bush. Although organic fertilizers act much more efficiently on the plant, for example, from 1 to 3 buckets of slurry for each plant. To obtain a solution, one part of cow dung is diluted in five parts of water. Fertilizer is applied in a shallow furrow dug along the perimeter of the trunk circle no closer than half a meter from the trunks.
Potash and phosphorus fertilizers are applied once every 2-3 years at the rate of 30-35 g of potassium nitrate and 35-40 g of double superphosphate per adult plant. Granules are introduced to a depth of 6-8 cm with mandatory subsequent watering. But the best complex fertilizer for lilacs is a solution of 200 g of ash in 8 liters of water.
Transplanting lilacs 1-2 years after planting is a must for experienced gardeners. And here's why: lilac very quickly sucks out all nutrients from the soil, even if you did regular feeding, so after two years the soil no longer contains the energy that the plant needs for intensive growth and bright flowering.
Three-year-old lilacs are transplanted not earlier than August, and young bushes - in late spring, immediately after flowering, otherwise they will not have time to take root. First, the landing pits are prepared, as described earlier. Before transplanting, inspect the bush, remove all damaged, dry and unnecessary shoots and branches of the lilac. Then the bush must be dug along the projection of the crown perimeter, removed from the ground along with the earthy lump, laid on an oilcloth or dense cloth and moved to a new hole, which in volume should be so much larger than the earthen clod of the bush so that a significant amount of nutritious soil can be added to it ...
Young plants up to two years old do not need pruning, since they have not yet formed all the skeletal branches, but in the third year it is necessary to start forming the crown, which will take 2-3 years. Lilacs are pruned in the spring, before the sap flow begins, until the lilac buds begin to swell: only 5-7 beautiful branches are left equidistant from each other, and the rest are cut off. Roots are also removed. The next year, you will have to cut about half of the flowering shoots. The principle of pruning is that no more than eight healthy buds are left on each skeletal branch, and the rest of the branch is pruned so as not to overload the plant during the flowering period. Simultaneously with the formative pruning, sanitary is also carried out: frozen, broken, diseased and improperly growing shoots are removed.
If you want to form a lilac in the form of a tree, you need to choose a seedling with a straight and strong vertical branch for planting, shorten it to the height of the trunk, and then form 5-6 skeletal branches from the growing shoots, while clearing the trunk and the trunk circle from the growth. When the standard lilac is formed, you will only have to thin out the crown annually.
In the spring, when the weather is warm, the wonderful smell of lilac spreads through the garden, which is very attractive to the beetles. You will have to manually collect the May beetles from the bush. During the active flowering of lilacs, it is necessary to cut about 60% of the flowering shoots - this is called pruning "for a bouquet" and is done for more intensive formation of new shoots and the establishment of flower buds next year. If you want the lilac branches to last longer in the vase, prune them early in the morning, and split the bottom of each branch cut. When the bush fades, it is necessary to remove all wilted brushes from it.
For pests and harmful microorganisms, lilac is practically invulnerable, but under certain circumstances it can be affected by powdery mildew, bacterial necrosis, verticillosis and bacterial rot, as well as leaf or kidney mites, hawk moth, lilac moth and miner moth.
Bacterial, or necrotic, necrosis manifests itself in August: green leaves of lilac become ash-gray, and young shoots - brown or brown. To avoid damage, you need to thin out the crown of the plant, thereby increasing its ventilation, remove diseased areas and prevent pests from appearing on the lilac. If the lesion is too strong, the bush will have to be uprooted.
Bacterial rot affects the leaves, shoots, flowers and buds of lilacs. It can also show up on roots as wet, rapidly growing spots. As a result of the development of the disease, the leaves lose their turgor and dry, but do not fall off immediately, the shoots dry and bend. 3-4 treatments of lilacs with copper chloride with an interval of 10 days will help you cope with the disease.
Powdery mildew is caused by a fungus and easily affects both young and mature plants: the leaves are covered with a loose grayish-white bloom, which becomes dense and turns brown with the development of the disease. The disease progresses in a dry hot summer. When the first signs of the disease appear, the areas affected by the disease must be cut out and burned, and the bush must be treated with a fungicidal preparation. In early spring, the soil should be dug up with bleach at the rate of 100 g per m², taking care not to disturb the roots of the lilac.
Verticillary wilting - also a fungal disease, from which lilac leaves curl up, become covered with rusty or brown spots, dry and fall off. Drying starts from the top of the bush and progresses very quickly. To stop the disease, you need to spray the bush with a solution of 100 g of laundry soap and 100 g of soda ash in 15 liters of water. Treatment of a diseased plant with Abiga-Peak is also effective. The affected areas should be trimmed and burned with fallen leaves.
Lilac hawk - a very large nocturnal butterfly with a marble pattern on the front wings. In the caterpillar stage, it is also quite large - up to 11 cm in length. It can also be recognized by the dense horn-like outgrowth at the back of the body. Not only lilacs, but also viburnum, meadowsweet, ash, currants and grapes can become a victim of the hawk moth caterpillar. Destroy the pest by treatment with a 1% Phthalofos solution.
Lilac moth lives in light forests and hedges. She gives two generations in one season. As a result of the vital activity of its small caterpillars, only veins rolled into a tube remain from the leaves, and the buds, flowers and buds disappear completely. You can destroy the pest by treating the lilac with Karbofos or Fozalon.
Lilac leaf mite - a small insect that sucks juices from the underside of lilac leaves, which makes them dry and turn brown. A large number of ticks can destroy a large lilac bush in two weeks. To prevent this from happening, treat the plant on the leaves with a solution of copper or iron sulfate, do not forget to thin out the crown, feed the bush with potassium-phosphorus fertilizers and burn fallen leaves in the fall.
Lilac kidney mite spends his life in the buds of plants: he feeds on their sap, and hibernates in them. As a result, the buds are deformed, the leaves and shoots from them grow weak and underdeveloped, the lilac stops blooming and may die. In order to avoid such consequences in early spring, as soon as the frosts pass, remove dry foliage and root shoots from under the bush, dig up the soil in the trunk circle on a full bayonet with turning the earth over and treat the lilac with a solution of copper sulfate.
Miner moth affects the leaves of plants, which is why they first become covered with dark brown spots (mines), and after a while they curl up into a tube, like from fire. Sick bushes stop blooming and die in a year or two. They destroy the pest by abundant processing on the leaves with Bordeaux liquid, a solution of Fitosporin-M or Baktofit, and for prevention purposes, it is necessary to remove and burn plant residues in the fall, and before frosts and early spring, deeply dig the soil in the trunk circle.
Seed propagation of lilacs is carried out mainly by specialists in nurseries. In amateur gardening, varietal lilacs are propagated by grafting, layering and cuttings. Both self-rooted lilac seedlings, grown from cuttings and cuttings, and grafted are on sale. Own-rooted lilac is not as capricious as a grafted one, it is easier to recover after frosty winters, it reproduces well vegetatively and, therefore, is more durable.
The stock for varietal lilacs can be common lilac, Hungarian lilac and common privet. Lilacs can be occulated in the summer with a sleeping bud or in the spring with an awakening bud, and spring grafting is preferable, since the survival rate of cuttings at this time is quite high - about 80%. For spring budding, cuttings are prepared in February or March and kept in a refrigerator at a temperature of 0 to 4 ºC wrapped in paper. Cuttings are cut from ripe annual shoots, on which the bark has already turned brown.
The stock is also prepared in advance: the lateral shoots are cut at a height of 15-20 cm, the root shoots are removed. The thickness of the root collar of the stock should not be thinner than a pencil, and the bark should easily move away from the wood, for which the stock is watered abundantly a week before grafting. On the day of vaccination, the soil is raked off the root collar of the rootstock, the grafting site is wiped with a damp clean cloth, the rootstock stump is split in the center to a depth of 3 cm with an budding knife.The lower end of the scion cutting is cleaned from both sides to the same height to form a wedge, insert the scion wedge splitting the stock, completely immersing the areas cleared of bark into it, and wrap the grafting site with tape so that its sticky side looks out. Then, all lesions and places from which the kidneys were removed with a garden pitch are treated, and a plastic bag is put on the grafted stalk, fixing it to create a greenhouse effect below the grafting site. The bag is not removed until the buds begin to swell on the scion.
Budding is carried out on a dry, fine day from 5 to 10 in the morning or in the evening, from 16 to 20 hours.
To perform this method of reproduction, find a young shoot, beginning to lignify, drag it in the spring in two places (at the base, as well as retreating another 80 cm) with copper wire, trying not to damage the bark, and then lay the shoot into a groove 1.5-2 cm deep , leaving the top on the surface, and secure it in it with pins. When the shoots growing from the cut-up reach 15-17 cm, sprinkle them with fertile soil at least half the height. Do not forget to water the cuttings all summer long, remove the emerging weeds and add soil under the growing shoots 1-2 times more. With the onset of cold weather, the layers are separated in places of constriction, cut so that there is a shoot with roots in each part, and the cuttings are sent to the school for growing or immediately planted in a permanent place. Do not forget to protect young plants wintering in the garden from the cold.
Since lilac cuttings are difficult to root, two rules must be followed:
The lower leaves are removed from the cuttings, the upper ones are shortened by half, the lower cut is made obliquely, and the upper one - at a right angle. Cuttings of lilacs are dipped in an oblique cut into a solution of a root stimulator for at least 16 hours.
For successful rooting, it is advisable to use a greenhouse or cutting box. The best rooting medium is a mixture of sand and peat in equal parts, although the sand can be partially replaced with perlite. A substrate treated with Fundazol or Maxim is placed in a sterile seedling container with a layer of about 20 cm, and 5 cm of calcined river sand is poured on top of it. Before planting, the lower ends of the cuttings are washed from the root former with clean water, after which the cuttings are planted in a layer of sand at such a distance from each other that their leaves do not touch each other. The cuttings are sprayed with water from a spray bottle and covered with a transparent lid. If you don't have a cutting box or greenhouse, cover each cutting with an inverted 5 liter, cut-necked, clear plastic bottle. Contain rooting cuttings in partial shade. Make sure that the sand under the cuttings does not dry out and spray the air under the coating with water to create one hundred percent moisture, and to prevent fungal damage, spray it with a weak solution of potassium permanganate once a week.
The roots of the cuttings appear after 40-60 days, and after that it will be necessary to ventilate the cuttings every evening, and over time, the bottles are removed completely. If the roots appeared in the summer, the cuttings are planted in a light area in a light, slightly acidic soil and covered with spruce branches for the winter, but if rooting has occurred closer to autumn, the cuttings are left to winter in the place of rooting, and they are transplanted into the garden only in spring. Lilac blooms from cuttings in the fifth year.
If planting and caring for lilacs in the garden seemed too simple and insipid to you, and you are not looking for easy ways in life, you can try to grow lilacs from seeds. Lilac seeds are collected in autumn in damp weather, after which the boxes are dried for several days at room temperature, then seeds are extracted from them, which are subjected to stratification: mixed with wet sand in a ratio of 1: 3, placed in a bag or container and stored in a vegetable box of the refrigerator in for two months. During the stratification, the sand should be slightly moist.
Lilac seeds are sown in the second decade of March in well-steamed or roasted garden soil to a depth of 15 mm. Crops are moistened with a spray bottle. Seedlings can appear in two weeks, but sometimes it can take up to three months for seeds to germinate. Two weeks after the emergence of seedlings, the seedlings are dived in increments of 4 cm, and with the onset of stable heat, the seedlings are planted in a permanent place.
You can sow seeds before winter in slightly frozen ground - this will free you from the stratification procedure. In the spring, the emerging seedlings dive and are sent for growing.
Adult lilacs winter well without shelter, but the root system of young seedlings is insulated with a layer of peat and dry leaves up to 10 cm thick. Varietal lilacs sometimes freeze in winter, so in the spring they need to cut off the frozen shoots.
There are about 30 species of lilacs, and many of them are grown in parks and gardens. We will try to introduce you to the most popular species and describe the varieties of lilacs, the most popular in garden culture.
Shade-tolerant hygrophyte that grows in deciduous forests of northeastern China and the Far East and prefers well-moistened soils. Amur lilac is a multi-stemmed tree with a dense spreading crown, reaching a height of 20 m.In culture, this species is grown as a shrub up to 10 m high.Amur lilac leaves, similar in shape to common lilac leaves, when blooming have a greenish-purple color, in summer they are dark green on top and lighter on the underside, and purple or orange-yellow in autumn. Small creamy or white flowers with a honey aroma are collected in powerful panicles up to 25 cm long. This species is frost-hardy and hibernates without shelter. Amur lilac is used for single and group plantings and hedges. The species has been cultivated since 1855.
Originally from Hungary, the countries of the former Yugoslavia, the Carpathians. It is a shrub up to 7 m high with dense, branched, upward shoots and broadly elliptical, shiny, ciliate dark green leaves up to 12 cm long at the edges. Below the leaves are bluish-green, sometimes pubescent along the midrib. Small lilac flowers with a weak aroma are collected in narrow, rare, divided into tiers of panicles. The species is unpretentious, resistant to urban conditions and is widely used in single and group plantings. Hungarian lilac has been cultivated since 1830.
Most often, two garden forms of the species are grown:
It is a compact species up to 1.5 m high with small broadly elliptic leaves 2-4 cm long, tapering towards the apex and ciliate at the edges. On the upper side, the leaves are dark green, glabrous, on the lower side - lighter and pubescent along the veins. Fragrant light lilac-pink flowers are collected in erect inflorescences from 3 to 10 cm long. The plant is frost-resistant.
It is a hybrid between Afghan lilacs and finely cut lilacs. It is a shrub up to 3 m high with thin but dense pointed lanceolate leaves up to 7.5 cm long and light purple fragrant flowers up to 2 cm in diameter, collected in wide loose panicles. This hybrid has been cultivated since 1640.
The plant has several popular forms:
It is a hybrid between common lilac and Persian lilac. This species was bred in France in 1777. The Chinese lilac reaches a height of 5 m.It has pointed ovate-lanceolate leaves up to 10 cm long and fragrant flowers up to 18 mm in diameter with an intense purple hue in buds and reddish-purple when blooming, collected in drooping wide-pyramidal panicles up to 10 cm long.
The most popular forms of Chinese lilac are:
A hybrid obtained by Victor Lemoine from crossing broadleaf lilac with common lilac. The leaves of this hybrid species are cordate or broadly ovate, with a sharp tip. In autumn, they turn from dark green to brown-purple. The flowers of this species are similar to those of common lilac, but are collected in looser and smaller inflorescences. The species has been cultivated since 1899.
The most spectacular is the terry form of this hybrid, but, besides it, this species is represented by the following varieties of lilac:
As for the common lilac, which has been in cultivation since 1583, it is represented by many varieties of domestic and foreign selection.
In addition to those described, such varieties of garden lilac are well known in the culture as Belle de Nancy, Monique Lemoine, Amethyst, Amy Schott, Vesuvius, Vestalka, Galina Ulanova, Jeanne d'Arc, Cavour, Soviet Arctic, Defenders of Brest, Captain Balte, Katerina Havemeyer , Congo, Leonid Leonov, Madame Charles Suchet, Madame Casimir Perrier, Dream, Miss Ellen Wilmott, Montaigne, Hope, Donbass Lights, Memory of Kolesnikov, Sensation, Charles Joly, Celia and many others.
As for the types of lilacs, in addition to those described, in the culture, you can also find Peking lilac, drooping, Japanese, Preston, Juliana, Komarov, Yunnan, fine-haired, shaggy, Zvegintsev, Nansen, Henry, Wolf and velvety.
Sections: Garden plants Perennials Flowering Shrubs Plants on C Olive (Olive)
Lilac is a multi-stemmed and deciduous shrub that can grow from 2 to 8 meters in height. The trunk of a siren can be up to 20 cm in diameter. The bark is gray-brown, smooth in young, with small cracks in old ones. The leaves are whole or pinnately separate. They can be oval, heart-shaped, ovoid, or elongated, light or dark green in color. The flowers are white, lilac, purple, blue, violet or pink, collected in panicles, most often drooping. Lilac bloom occurs in all species in different ways. But usually this happens in the period from the second decade of April to June. During flowering, the shrub smells very tasty. The aroma is very pleasant and delicate. The seeds ripen in a bivalve box.
Lilac is one of the favorites of all gardeners. Does not need special care, is not afraid of frost and can live up to 100 years.
The seed method is used only for growing species plants. When planting varietal specimens, some of the maternal characteristics are lost. The seeds are best bought at the store. The seeding material collected with your own hands may not ripen without additional manipulations. In middle latitudes, they often resort to growing seedlings. Sowing seeds is best done in February.
For sowing, prepare wide bowls or a container with drainage holes. Lay a drainage layer (expanded clay, pebbles), cover with loose, neutral soil. Spread the seeds over its surface without covering it. The seeds are very small, so it is better to mix them with dry sand for easier sowing. Press them lightly to the surface and spray with a spray bottle. Cover crops with foil and place in a warm place.
It is better to germinate seeds at a temperature of + 22 ... 25 ° C in diffused light. Seedlings will appear within 2-3 weeks. You need to ventilate them regularly, moisten the soil. To avoid black leg disease, it is recommended to water it with potassium permanganate from time to time.
When the seedlings are strong, the cover can be removed and grown at room temperature. After the appearance of 2-3 true leaves, the seedlings dive into peat-humus pots, in which they will be planted in open ground. Seedlings should be taught to fresh air gradually. First, open the window for a while, then take it out into the street, increasing the time spent there.
It is possible to plant seedlings on the site only after warm weather has completely established. The soil should be nutritious, loose, well-drained. It should be borne in mind that budley grows a lot. Therefore, the distance between seedlings should be decent (1-1.5 m).
Dig holes 40x40 cm in size. Make the depth 20 cm more than the root system. Put drainage 10-15 cm thick on the bottom of the hole, add mineral fertilizer. Pour soil mixed with compost on top. Remove seedlings from cups with soil (if these are peat pots, do not remove). Place the seedling in the hole, sprinkle with the required amount of soil and compact it. Water the plant and cover with compost.
The catnip plant (Nepeta L.) is a member of the Lamiaceae family. This genus includes about 250 different species.In nature, catnip is found in the temperate latitudes of Europe (24 species) and Asia, and therefore it can be found on the territory of Russia. Catnip also grows in tropical mountainous areas in northern Africa. It is also found almost throughout the European part of Russia, in the Caucasus and Siberia. This perennial plant prefers to grow on stony dry soil. The word "Nepeta" directly refers to the city of Nepeta, located in Italy (the former Etruscan state). In this city, catnip grew literally at every step.
Catnip is a perennial plant, but there are also annual species. The height of the bush can vary from 100 to 120 centimeters. Opposite fragrant single leaf plates have a heart-shaped shape, while at the edge they have teeth.
The plant blooms in July. Its whorled inflorescences consist of small white and blue flowers. Bushes with yellow inflorescences are rare. The lower petals grow together to form a bell-shaped or funnel-shaped tube that ends in two lips. At the same time, there are a couple of spots on the upper lip. Each flower has four stamens, two of which are collected in bunches. The lower pair of stamens is slightly shorter than the upper one, however, none of them protrudes from the crown tube. In a flowering plant, flowers are collected in the upper part of the stem in a cone, while they retain their decorative effect until October. At the end of flowering, in place of the inflorescences, fruits are formed, which are nuts.
Mint and catnip are related plants. At the same time, the foliage of these plants smells almost the same. However, catnip emits special active volatile substances, which include a compound called nepetalactone. It is capable of influencing the behavior of cats through the respiratory tract.
Penstemon is distinguished by its photophilousness. That is why a sunny site is most suitable for growing it. Also, when choosing a place for planting, pay attention to the fact that this flower reacts extremely negatively to drafts. The soil should be well drained and lightweight.
Penstemon is propagated by seeds, while growing it both through seedlings and in a seedless way. Sowing seeds for seedlings is carried out in February. To do this, take a seedling box and fill it with nutritious soil. Sow the seeds, and they are buried quite a bit into the substrate. Water the crops using a spray bottle. Cover the seeds with a thin layer of calcined sand on top, and then re-moisten the crops. And on top, cover the box with glass (film). Transfer the seed container to a well-lit and warm place. The first seedlings should appear after half a month. It is quite simple to take care of crops: they need regular ventilation (once a day) and a temperature of at least 20 degrees, and also do not forget to moisten the substrate if necessary.
When the first true leaves appear at the seedlings, they should be cut into peat pots. The grown seedlings are planted in the garden in the last days of May, and the soil and drainage are prepared in advance. At the same time, remember that the sooner you plant the penstemon bushes in the garden, the later they will begin to bloom.
Water such a plant systematically. Pay special attention to watering if there is a prolonged dry period. But do not let the liquid stagnate in the ground. To do this, water the bushes only when the surface of the soil dries out. In order to avoid stagnation of liquid in the root system of the plant, when planting seedlings in open ground, do not forget to make a drainage layer of fine expanded clay or coarse sand at the bottom of each planting hole. And so that moisture does not evaporate from the ground too quickly, its surface around the bushes is mulched with a layer of dry peat or compost. Every time the plant is watered, remember to loosen the surface of the soil around it and remove the weeds.
The soil on the site should be fertile, loose, allow water and air to pass through well, and also have high acidity. To improve the quality of garden soil, it is combined with peat, fine gravel, compost or sand. And in order to achieve optimal acidity, when digging the soil, it is recommended to add charcoal to it.
In order for penstemon to always be effective and neat, it is recommended to transplant it regularly (once every 5 years). As a rule, the plant is transplanted in the spring. In this case, the transplantation procedure is combined with reproduction by dividing the bush. Remove the mature shrub from the soil and carefully divide it into several parts, while being careful not to injure the root system. Delenki are planted in a new area in pre-prepared holes, at the bottom of which a drainage layer must be made. Upon completion of the planting of the divisions, the soil surface is slightly compacted, and then they are watered. Cover the planting with a layer of mulch. After about four weeks, the cuttings will completely take root.
The first time the bushes are fed during their disembarkation in open ground. To do this, when digging the soil, compost is introduced into it. Also, plants are fed with organic matter, introducing it into the soil three times during the season.
Before the bushes bloom, they are fed with a complex mineral fertilizer, which contains a large amount of phosphorus. Thanks to this, the penstemon will bloom more magnificently and effectively.
Despite the fact that viburnum berries are not very tasty, they have incredibly useful and medicinal properties. In terms of its healing qualities, it surpasses raspberries, blueberries, currants, blueberries and elderberries. The fruit pulp contains a lot of vitamins C and P, organic acids, carotene, pectins and tannins.
Such fruits are recommended for edema that appears due to diseases of the kidneys, urinary tract and heart, because they have a diuretic effect. The berries contain astringent and antiseptic substances, thanks to which ulcers and wounds of the gastrointestinal tract heal. Such fruits help to strengthen the immune system, therefore they are advised to be eaten during the recovery period after a serious illness. Kalina helps well in the treatment of tuberculosis, internal bleeding, diathesis, nervous disorders, convulsions, diseases of the liver, kidneys, gastrointestinal tract organs (gastritis, colitis, ulcers), with atherosclerosis, sclerosis, vascular spasms and coughs. They are also used as an antispasmodic and sedative.
Fresh and dried fruits, their juice, decoction and infusion made from them, as well as berries boiled in honey have healing properties. The fruits boiled in honey, for example, are used for diseases of the upper respiratory tract, they perfectly remove coughs. It is also used for edema associated with heart disease.
From the fruits of such a plant, nourishing and cleansing masks for the skin of the face are made. A decoction and infusion made from them is used in the treatment of boils, carbuncles and eczema.
The flowers, foliage and bark of viburnum also contain medicinal substances. An infusion made from flowers can eliminate pain during menstruation and cure gastritis with low acidity. It is recommended to gargle with a decoction of viburnum flowers with shrunken ligaments and sore throat. It also helps to stop bleeding, improve appetite and increase sweating. A decoction made from buds and young shoots has anti-inflammatory and antipyretic properties; it is used for advanced scrofula and diathesis.
Viburnum is used for making jams, drinks, jams, mousses, and also tinctures, creams, shampoos, tonics, and also cosmetics for the skin of the face.
In the juice of viburnum fruits there is an analogue of female hormones, therefore, pregnant women are prohibited from eating them. Otherwise, it can cause the development of pathologies in the fetus or lead to premature birth. Also, in some pregnant women, viburnum causes an allergic reaction.
A person with low blood pressure should not eat a lot of viburnum or use funds from it. Also, it should not be eaten by people with high acidity of gastric juice, suffering from chronic kidney disease, from leukemia, thrombophlebitis and other blood diseases. Viburnum is also not recommended for people with arthritis, gout and urolithiasis.
Important! You can eat only red fruits. Viburnum species with black berries can be poisonous!