LANGUAGE AND MEANING OF FLOWERS AND PLANTS
In the Victorian age the calla was considered a symbol of refinement and nobility and giving it meant esteem towards the person to whom it was given and was used to strengthen an important friendship.
There calla belongs to the family of araceae, is a flower of African origin that grows spontaneously in all areas with a mild climate such as central-eastern Africa, the regions between the equator and the Cape of Good Hope and near the Vaal river in the Transvaal region. It is called in its territories of origin lily of the Nile and was introduced in Europe in 1731, assuming the botanical name of zantedeschia, (in honor of the Italian scientist, physician, botanist Francesco Zantedeschi) this name, however, was not and is almost never used, the common name also recognized in different continents is calla, a term that derives from the Greek word kalos which means beautiful.
It can be said of the calla lily that it is a plant with a unique and unmistakable appearance, the leaves have a triangular or heart-shaped shape, depending on the species, another element that characterizes it and spat, that is the leaf in the shape of a large petal with the most disparate colors, which curving to protect the small internal flowers, yellow in color, grouped in a particular cylindrical shape called a spadix.
The best known and most used species for ornamental purposes is the zantedeschia aethiopica, native to southern Africa, it is a large evergreen perennial plant, with a white spathe, which is characterized by the appearance of a single inflorescence. It was and still is the species that more than any other evokes the image of elegance typical of all calla lilies.
Another known and widely cultivated species, obtained by hybridization, is the Zantedeschia elliottiana, native to North Africa, characterized by a yellow spathe which unfortunately does not adapt well to low temperatures. Two other fairly well-known species are there zantedeschia nelsoni, with a sulfur-yellow spathe and a showy purple spot, and the zantedeschia rehmannii, with a pink spatula. [banner]
THE vegetables are they able to communicate, listen and feel emotions? According to some recent research, it seems so! For example, trees can "sing" through the rustle of leaves moved by the wind, while the seeds even make "decisions", putting roots in the most inhospitable places, in the crack of a wall or a sidewalk if conditions allow them to germinate. Sometimes the plants even seem to have a sort of "dialogue" with them insects, especially with bees. What does science say about it?
Science: the secret language of flowers and plants
When the flowers speak to bees, it's different than when people chat. THE petals they do not conjugate verbs or use adjectives to tell a bee that it looks beautiful when it flies, at least as far as we know. But plants respond in some way to the airborne sounds of a pollinator insect, greeting him with increased nectar production in the hope of attracting him. It is a poetic and practical language that increases everyone's chances of survival.
The scientists they believe more and more that trees and plants communicate with each other, various living beings and the environment, responding to acoustic vibrations. Now there is more evidence thanks to a new study on "natural language", in which researchers from three schools at Tel Aviv University - plant science and food safety, zoology and mechanical engineering - collaborated on a study that measures like evening primroses, or Oenothera drummondii, respond to sound.
There Research - published on bioRxiv , a prepress server for biology articles - has not yet been peer-reviewed, but its findings are in line with recent findings on the inner life of plants. Atlantic scholar Ed Yong asked the plant biologists not associated with this document to evaluate the results, noting: "Almost unanimously, they said that plants can listen."
In the study, the scientists compared the response of plants to different sounds, on several frequencies, using the "laser vibrometry " to measure the vibration of the flower petals. They also evaluated pollinators and i flowers that interact in the field in four different experiments, using grafts of hundreds of species naturally grown outdoors, as well as pollinators in the wild at night and during the day. Eventually, i researchers they found a kind of "communication" at play.
Science: the secret language of flowers and plants
The research team studied the vibrations of bee wings, as they buzz around the evening primroses. Well, the flowers vibrated when they heard the sounds, as if they were "listening". But the flowers didn't respond equally to each sound or silence. When the scientists played recordings of pollinators flying past, or other sounds at frequencies similar to those produced by bees, the flowers responded by producing sweeter nectar in about three minutes.
Other sounds at different frequencies, however, did not lead to the same result. The flowers vibrated, but did not increase the sweetness of their production of nectar. Each flower was emptied before the experiment, and then the sugar concentrations of the nectar produced were measured before and after to compare the production based on the frequencies of the various sounds.
The average concentration of sugar was 20% higher in flowers exposed to frequencies similar to those of a pollinator, but remained stable to the sound of recordings of fhigher requirements and silence. The researchers explain: "Our results document for the first time that plants can respond quickly to pollinator sounds in an ecologically relevant way.”
Results that led to the scholars to argue that the flowers are in practice the "ears" of a plant, with the function of informing it as a whole of what is happening nearby and when it is time to "woo" a pollinator.
Plants they must be sensitive to the sound of pollinating insects because they have a symbiotic relationship between them, they depend on pollinators for reproduction, therefore they produce a sweeter nectar as a kind of "seduction". And the bees suck it, attracted by its sweetness, which means they are perfectly in tune with what the flowers are doing.
The results also indicate that plants are (probably) sensitive to man-made noise. While researchers have extensively measured the sensitivity of plants to aspects of the environment, such as light and touch, there have been few previous studies on how flowers respond to airborne sounds.
This latest work indicates that plants rely on their listening skills, respond to acoustic vibrations to attract pollinators and who can distinguish between human chatter, for example, and the much more useful sound of the hum of a bee. And it may be that in noisy environments, flowers have a hard time listening to their pollinators and responding appropriately.
While this study is only a first step in understanding how plants respond to acoustics in the air, the researchers believe there is something more to the auditory history that they have begun to discover. "The ability to listen has implications that go far beyond pollination: plants could potentially listen and respond to herbivores, other animals, elements and perhaps other plants ".
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Language of flowers and plants
Water lily: unrequited love. The Greeks attributed to this flower so pleasant and delicate anti-aphrodisiac qualities. In Greek mythology it is considered the symbol of unrequited love, but also of Platonic love. The Egyptians used the flower to decorate the walls of the tombs of the pharaohs. In the East, the water lily symbolizes dawn, the arrival of the sun.
Orchid: sensuality and luxury. A curiosity: almost all orchid flowers at the moment of development make a 180 ° twist so that the posterior petal becomes inferior and the anterior sepal becomes superior. The sepals and the lateral petals are almost always the same, while the central petal (the labellum) is always different and can assume various shapes at the same time it may or may not contain nectar. The elegant, delicate and colorful orchid flowers have always been considered aphrodisiacs: elixirs of love, magic potions and recipes against sterility were prepared with the roots or stems of orchids. It therefore symbolizes sensuality, but also luxury, charm and refinement.
Hydrangea: coldness. Native to Japan, hydrangea is a very decorative plant, frequently used to decorate flower beds and gardens. It is a symbol of coldness. The "blue hydrangea" has recently become a symbol of hope in defense of children's rights.
Poppy: the glory. Perhaps due to its bright color and the fragility of the petals, the poppy was considered, since ancient times, a symbol of glory and death at the same time. In Great Britain, since 1914 the poppy represented the traditional flower of the fallen in combat and, for this reason, in supreme act of homage, at the funeral of George IV a large crown of simple field poppies was noticed. In ancient Greece it was the symbol of sleep. The god Morpheus was in fact represented with a bundle of poppies in his arms.
Passionflower: the mystical flower. A mystical and complex representation is attributed to the Passiflora due to its particular shape. In fact this flower, commonly called "passion flower", contains in its corolla all the symbolic elements that recall the sacrifice of Christ: a circle of purple filaments represents the crown of thorns, the three styles represent the nails, the stamen, the hammer , the petals recall the Apostles, the tendrils of the plant, then depict the whip of the flagellation.
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The attribution of a symbolic meaning to flowers and plants was the work of Mary Wortley Montagu, who at the time was the wife of the English ambassador to Constantinople. During his stay in the Turkish capital in the first decade of the 1700s, he learned of selam, a local custom that attributed symbolic meanings to all sorts of objects, but above all to flowers, fruits and plants. He reported everything in some of his letters that were published in 1763, which gave great resonance in Europe to this topic with numerous publications on it.
Holly: strength, endurance and foresight. See Data Sheet
Alisso (Lobularia maritima): value beyond beauty.
Laurel: triumph, glory and success. See Data Sheet
Anemone: desolation, abandonment, feeling abandoned, feeling betrayed. See Data Sheet
Orange: generosity. See Data Sheet
Aster: intellectual depth and eternal love. See Data Sheet
Azalea: luck and fragile passion. See Data Sheet
Bacopa: pure conscience. See Data Sheet
Hawthorn: hope and prudence. See Data Sheet
Leon's mouth: indifference and presumption. See Data Sheet
Bouvardia: enthusiasm. See Data Sheet
Snowdrop: consolation and hope. See Data Sheet
Beautiful during the day: coquetry. See Data Sheet
Beautiful at night: shyness. See Data Sheet
Beautiful of Ireland: good luck.
Brassica: profit, is associated with births. See Data Sheet
Bougainvillea: passion. See Data Sheet
Cactus: passionate love. See Data Sheet
Calamondino: luck. See Data Sheet
Calla: modesty. See Data Sheet
Camellia: sacrifice. See Data Sheet
Red camellia: flame in my heart. See Data Sheet
White camellia: you're adorable. See Data Sheet
Campanula: perseverance and hope. See Data Sheet
Celosia: immortality. See Data Sheet
Cyclamen: shy hope. See Data Sheet
Clematis: joy, luck, success.See Data Sheet
Chrysanthemum: symbol of the commemoration of the dead. See Sheet
Dahlia: gratitude, good taste and dignity. See Data Sheet
Dimorfoteca: freedom, to be free. See Data Sheet
Dipladenia: overcoming difficult situations. See Data Sheet
Dracaena: you are about to fall into the trap. See Data Sheet
Drosanthemum (Jupiter's Beard): triumph and victory over the enemy. See Data Sheet
Ivy: fidelity, exclusive love. See Data Sheet
Heather: solitude. See Data Sheet
Eucalyptus: protection. See Data Sheet
Euryops: means "big eye". See Data Sheet
Cornflower: delicacy, first love and bliss. See Data Sheet
Wax flower: consecration.
Orange flowers: virginity, fecundity and purity.
Cherry blossoms: good education.
Lotus flower: purity.
Peach flowers: immortal love. See Data Sheet
Freesia: lasting friendship. See Data Sheet
Fuchsia: grace and grace. See Data Sheet
Gardenia: sincerity and refinement. See Data Sheet
White carnation: fidelity. See Data Sheet
Red carnation: anger, resentment and energy. See Data Sheet
Gaura: superb. See Data Sheet
Gazania: wealth.See Sheet
White jasmine: kindness and affection. See Data Sheet
Red geranium: you are a comfort to me. See Data Sheet
Pink geranium: I prefer you. See Data Sheet
Five-spotted geranium: humiliation. See Data Sheet
Scarlet geranium: stupidity. See Data Sheet
Imperial geranium: stable relationships, sentimental stability. See Data Sheet
Gerbera: cheerfulness. See Data Sheet
Lily: purity and royalty. See Data Sheet
Sunflower: adoring love. See Data Sheet
Iberis: indifference. See Data Sheet
Hibiscus: delicate beauty.
Iris: faith, hope, good news and sincerity. See Data Sheet
Lantana: rigor. See Data Sheet
Lavender: good luck, mistrust and detachment. See Data Sheet
White lilac: purity and virginity. See Data Sheet
Yellow lilac: I'm in the clouds. See Data Sheet
Lemon: enthusiasm. See Data Sheet
Lithodora: strength and fragility. See Data Sheet
Lobelia: despair. See Sheet
Magnolia: nobility and dignity. See Data Sheet
Mandevilla: flashy beauty symbolizes overcoming problems. See Data Sheet
Daisy: simplicity, spontaneity and purity. See Data Sheet
Mimosa: innocence, freedom, autonomy and sensitivity.
Thrush: virginity, coquetry. See Data Sheet
Peppermint: warmth of feeling. See Sheet
Narcissus: uncertainty and unrequited love. See Data Sheet
Nemesia: justice and respect for the rules. See Data Sheet
Do not forget me: eternal love. See Data Sheet
Water lily: purity of heart. See Data Sheet
New Guinea: impatience, virility. See Data Sheet
Olive tree: sacred plant, symbol of peace. See Data Sheet
Orchid: sensuality, passion and refined beauty. See Data Sheet
Ballerina orchid: spiritual perfection and harmony. See Data Sheet
Origan: joy. See Data Sheet
Ornithogalum: reconciliation. See Data Sheet
Hydrangea: birth of a love. See Data Sheet
Pink poppy: serenity, vivacity. See Data Sheet
Red poppy: pride. See Data Sheet
Petunia Nana: love that cannot be hidden. See Data Sheet
Smile plant: Laughter, joy, smile. See Data Sheet
Pothos: desire or mourning, in the sense of eternal.
Parsley: festivity. See Data Sheet
Passionflower: fidelity. See Data Sheet
Rhododendron: first love. See Data Sheet
Orange rose: seduction. See Data Sheet
White Rose: silence and purity. See Data Sheet
Yellow rose: jealousy and infidelity. See Data Sheet
Peach pink: modesty. See Data Sheet
Pink rose: tenderness, grace, friendship and innocence. See Data Sheet
Red rose: passion and true love. See Data Sheet
Dark red pink: unconscious beauty. See Data Sheet
Purple rose: enchantment. See Data Sheet
Rosemary: I remember. See Data Sheet
Houseleek: domestic economy. See Data Sheet
Sensitive Plant: sensitivity. See Data Sheet
Stramonium: camouflage. See Data Sheet
Spatafillo: I will defend you. See Data Sheet
Tulip: true love. See Data Sheet
Red tulip: love declaration. See Data Sheet
Yellow tulip: the sun is in your smile. See Data Sheet
Violet tulip: modesty. See Data Sheet
Ulmaria: vanity and uselessness.
Pansy: intense and romantic thinking. See Data Sheet
Violet: humility and modesty. See Data Sheet
Mistletoe: I overcome all obstacles. See Data Sheet